"Discovery Five Hundred" Newsletter of the International Columbian Quincentenary Alliance Volume IV, Number 1, January 1989 NINA RECONSTRUCTION Doug Peck, the sailor who took on the National Geographic and sailed solo across the Atlantic following the Columbus Log and ended up re-affirming the probability of Columbus' landfall on Watlings-San Salvador (see "Discovery Five Hundred": Vol. III, No. 1), has undertaken an ambitious project to reconstruct the Nina in time for 1992. He has formed a non-profit corporation to build a replica of the Nina, Columbus' favorite ship and the one in which he returned to Spain and which was later used by Vicente Yanez Pinzon on several voyages of discovery in the New World. Peck is still awaiting the necessary approvals from government agencies for his organization, but he has already assembled a board of governors of very talented and dedicated men for the project. Charles E. Morgan, one of the leading naval architects of sailing vessels in the U.S., is already at work on the design. Nina will be a 67 foot, four masted, square rigged vessel designed using the research of Eugene Lyon as reported in the November, 1986 issue of the "National Geographic Magazine". Nina will be built of molded fiberglass that will resemble the wood used in the construction of 15th century vessels. The deck and interior will be wood, formed and treated to carry out the authentic look. This vessel will be seaworthy in every respect and will be manned by a crew of 24 experienced sailors, as was the Nina. Recognizing that much has happened in navigational science since 1492, Peck confesses that they are going to install a diesel engine and generator and modern electronics for safety, but these will be camouflaged to retain the authentic appearance. Plans are to sail the vessel to Palos (Huelva), Spain in the summer of 1992, then on September 17, (September 8, Columbus' Julian calendar) leave from Gomera (weather permitting) and in 34 days make landfall on Guanahani-San Salvador in the Bahamas exactly 500 years after Columbus. Peck has been in contact with the Spanish Quincentenary Committee through the Phileas Society and has been assured of their enthusiastic support and cooperation in this project. He is also coordinating the project with the Bahamas Quincentennial Commission. Peck has developed a logo for his Columbus Expedition. The logo is based on Columbus' verbal description of it. This logo will be on the main course (mainsail) of Nina as well as on the flags and pennants that they will fly. The initials of Ferdinand and Isabella were copied from examples of 15th century script, but the cross is an original created by Peck. Columbus said only that he used a Maltese cross--and therefore, all previous ver- sions of the logo have shown the typical square cross as used on the shields and pennants of the Knights of Malta. Peck claims that since Columbus was a devout Catholic and set up a Christian crucifix at each of his new discoveries to claim possession for Spain, he would have used the commonly accepted crucifix with the longer lower leg and simply styled the pattern after the Maltese fashion. Accordingly, he has adopted this hybrid model in his unique logo. LANDFALL ACCORDING TO PECK Doug Peck has received a great deal of attention since his solo sail across the Atlantic in late 1987. On October 13, 1988 he delivered a paper at the Annual Meeting of The Society for the History of Discoveries held at University of Minnesota. His paper, titled "Reconstruction and Analysis of the 1492 Columbus Log From a Sailor-Navigator Viewpoint" has been reproduced in a 37-page monograph. Part I presents navigational data and obser- vations made by Peck in sailing and duplicating the daily heading and distance reported in the Columbus log for the 34 days from Gomera to Guanahani. Part II contains an analysis and thesis on the voyage from Guanahani to the several islands Columbus visited and named before crossing to Cuba. In this section, Peck also takes a critical look at the theory proposed by both S.E. Morison and Joseph Judge as the "final solution" to the landfall contro- versy. Four appendices contain supporting navigational data and illustrative charts. "Discovery Five Hundred" has been given permission to quote from the paper, and we have elected to go straight to Peck's conclusion, which appears on page 28. "I have introduced three vital and often neglected approach- es to solving the fascinating but perplexing problem of the Columbus landfall in the New World. The first was my use of a sailing vessel to duplicate the track from Gomera, thus avoiding the mathematical errors inherent in using suspect estimated factors to solve a precise navigation course triangulation problem. The second is my application of meteorological forces that influenced the Columbus track. This strong influencing factor has been overlooked in the past, producing many erroneous conclusions based upon one or two isolated log entries rather than looking at the broad overriding meteorological picture. The third and equally important factor was to bring out, or at least re-emphasize, the personality, character, state of mind, and writing style of Columbus and show how this should be a strong consideration in interpreting some of the ambiguities of the log. "Enumerated earlier were the three criteria a proposed Guanahani must fulfill. First: be located at the end of a reconstructed track across the Atlantic; I concluded, naturally enough, that based upon the Atlantic track, San Salvador quali- fied as the most probable Guanahani of the Columbus landfall. In retrospect, I believe the reason Luis Marden's computer track ended so far south was because he gave too much weight to leeway and underestimated the strong currents from the southeast in the last 600 miles east of the Bahamas. Second: conform to the physical characteristics described in the log; In this criteria, San Salvador receives nearly a 100% grade on all points. Samana Cay fails miserably... Third: be located at the starting point of the track through the Bahamas. This criteria is satisfied by the documented track... "In summary, I have presented a straight forward, logical, and scientifically proven thesis that San Salvador is by far the most probable Guanahani of Columbus' landfall. It is at the end of an accurately sailed track across the Atlantic as described in Columbus' log, it fits better than any other island the physical and geographical description in the log and it is at the starting point of a systematic and scientifically re-created track through the Bahamas arrived at by a searching analysis of the overwhelm- ing pertinent navigational and meteorological data in the log rather than being misled by ambiguous, allegorical and romanti- cally inspired 15th Century rhetoric." Anyone interested in learning more about Peck's "Nina" project or how to obtain a copy of his complete paper can write: Douglas T. Peck, 626 Casa Bella Drive, Bradenton, FL 34209. REPORTED ELSEWHERE MORE ON "AMERICA 500" RACE An item in "BOAT/U.S.", the Newsletter of the Boat Owners Association of the United States, Summer, 1988, adds information to what we already know about the historic transatlantic sail following Columbus' route to the New World. An invitation is being extended to give ordinary cruising sailors a chance to be a part of this historic sailing fleet which sets out from Palos, Spain on August 3, 1992. Concerning the timing of the event, while August 3 is the correct historic date for the departure from Spain, the second leg of the voyage will not set out from Gomera in the Canary Islands on September 12 (when Columbus set sail), but will delay the departure until November 12 to avoid the hurricane season. The destination remains San Salvador, or Watling Island, in the Bahamas where Columbus is believed to have first landed on October 12, 1492. World Cruising, Ltd., organizer of the event, intends to keep "America 500" a non-commercial rally for amateur sailors. For information, write World Cruising Ltd., P.O. Box 165, London, England WC1B 5LA. SEARCH FOR THE SANTA MARIA "The Washington Post Magazine" (Sunday, October 9, 1988) reports that, thanks to the obsession of a Columbus fan, the search goes on for the lost Santa Maria. Daniel Koski-Karell of Arlington, Virginia is on a mission to find Columbus' lost flagship, which is believed to have gone down off the coast of Cap Haitien, Haiti, on Christmas Eve, 1492. "I'm planning two or three trips a year to Haiti over the next several years," Koski- Karell says. "I'd like to find the Santa Maria by 1992, in time for the 500th anniversary of Columbus' first voyage to the New World." To date, he's already made about 30 dives near the probable wreck site. Koski-Karell is one of the world's top archaeologists specializing in underwater diving. In the last decade he's worked as a consultant on projects that have recovered nearly 500 sunken vessels. He first began reading about archaeology in 1971 while he lay in a Cam Ranh Bay convalescent hospital in Vietnam, recovering from a mortar wound to his right leg. He went on to get a master's degree in archaeology. His obsession with Columbus is a labor of love. Take, for instance, the hours he spent searching through hundreds of portraits of the Italian navigator till he found one depicting a bare-headed Columbus with knobby arthritic growths on his ears. "In almost all the pictures of Columbus, he's wearing a hat that covers his ears," Koski-Karell says. "I knew he suffered from arthritis, so I wanted to know if he had the form of the disease that causes this type of growth. It was a tedious search, but at least that's one mystery that's cleared up." It is obvious how Koski-Karell plans to celebrate the anniversary of Columbus' discovery of America. "I'll be in Haiti again. One of the mysteries of the archaeology of Columbus is where his land settlement there is. I have a friend who's a medical missionary and archaeologist in Haiti who thinks he's narrowed down the location. Maybe the two of us can commune with Columbus' spirit there." (Edited from "J Street", a feature in "The Washington Post Sunday Magazine". Material credited to Bill Sautter and sent to "Discovery Five Hundred" courtesy of Bruce McElfresh of "National Geographic Magazine".) COLUMBUS' SETTLERS VICTIMS OF FLU? An item by Ellen K. Coughlin in "The Chronicle of Higher Education" reports on research by Francisco Guerra which appeared in the fall issue of "Social Science History". The theory: the epidemic that killed many of the Spanish settlers who landed with Christopher Columbus on Hispaniola in 1493, as well as most of the island's native Indians, was a swine influenza, according to the medical researcher at the Universidad de Alcala de Henares in Madrid. He says that swine flu was more likely responsible for the devastation that followed Columbus' second voyage than was malaria, small pox, or yellow fever--all of which have been named by historians as possible causes. According to contemporary sources cited by Dr. Guerra, including a letter from Columbus himself, an acute infectious disease broke out on December 9, 1493, in a settlement known as La Isabela on Hispaniola (now Haiti and the Dominican Republic). The disease was highly contagious, with a short incubation period, and affected a large population simultaneously. It was characterized by high fever, prostration, and significant mortal- ity. Dr. Guerra's contention that swine influenza was responsible for the epidemic is based partly on historical records showing that Columbus made a stop at the Canary Islands, where he took on eight sows. Dr. Guerra argues that the sows, kept in the hold of the ship, would have had no contact with the settlers until their landing on Hispaniola, an island where that type of animal was previously unknown. The classical clinical description of influenza, he says, matched historical accounts of the 1493 epidemic. Moreover, he argues, it is generally accepted today that influenza epidemics with excessive mortality rates are caused by animal viruses. COLUMBUS CLASSROOM PROGRAM The December 1988 issue of "Cruising World" carries a report on a classroom program in the wake of Columbus. According to the article, the Route of Discovery Race will be the focus of a classroom education program designed to spark students' interest in sailing, the sea and our global environment through the spirit of adventure. As the lead event in this year's Student Ocean Challenge (SOC) program, students will have the opportunity to track the fleet which sails from Puerto Sherry, Spain, to Santo Domingo, retracing the route sailed by Christopher Columbus in 1492. The SOC school program originally began as a part of the first SOC Challenge, a single-handed round-the-world race, in 1982 to 1983 with a handful of middle school students in Newport, RI. Since then, the SOC classroom programs have expanded to include a variety of other expeditions. The SOC provides subscribers with teaching materials, tracking charts, biweekly bulletins and real-time access to event news through computer. Information is available from Mame Reynolds, Project Coordinator, SOC, Newport School Administration Building, Mary St., Newport, RI 02840. SHORT TAKES BOALSBURG, PA, COLUMBUS EVENT Columbus Day, 1988 took on special meaning in Boalsburg, Pa., site of the Columbus Chapel (see "Discovery Five Hundred", Vol. III, No. 3). In celebration of the 496th anniversary of the discovery of the new world, the Boal Mansion Museum sponsored a two-day "Ethnic and Cultural Heritage Festival". One of the highlights of the event was the symbolic burial of a tomahawk by Christopher Lee, director of the museum and an eighth generation direct descendant of Christopher Columbus, and Bob Moore, a Cherokee Indian. The tomahawk was buried as a symbol of cultural unity. Lee explained that he has adopted the theme of cultural awareness leading to cultural harmony for future celebrations climaxing in 1992 and it ties in with the theme of the Pennsylva- nia Quincentenary Commission, which is "Ethnic Diversity". Lee claims that his Columbus Chapel museum bears the distinction of having "the strongest connection with Columbus in the nation." MORE 1992 CELEBRATIONS In past issues we have listed the variety of events being commemorated in 1992 in addition to those directly related to the Quincentenary. Our correspondent in Belleview, Washington, Thornton Thomas, informs us of another one, dealing specifically with the Pacific Northwest 300 years after the Discovery of America in 1492. Mr. Thomas is a member of the Discovery 1992 Maritime Committee, composed of members from Oregon, Washington State, and British Columbia. They're planning 1992 celebrations of a Bicentennial: the 1792 discovery and entry of the Columbia River by Captain Robert Gray, giving the United States future claim to the Oregon Territory. British Captain George Vancouver and Spanish Captain Quadra charted the inland passage waterways and disproved the Northwest Passage theory. They also settled the Nootka incident, which later opened the Spanish Pacific Ocean to foreign flag ships. ANOTHER COLUMBUS MEMORIAL In Norristown, Pennsylvania, a 1926 pledge to build a monument to Christopher Columbus is finally being fulfilled. Sixty-two years ago the Borough Council and Italian immigrants of Norristown had collected money to erect a monument to Columbus. However, the money was diverted to help the needy during the depression, with a promise to build the monument in the future-- substituting a simple stone marker at the time. On Columbus Day, 1988, the project of the "Hello Columbus 1992 Committee", founded in 1984 by Frank Ciaccio, was unveiled in a public ceremony attended by representatives of the governments of Italy and Spain, local and state politicians and about 300 members of the borough's large Italian community. The memorial is to be com- pleted in 1992 and was designed by architect Alfred Panepinto. His design represents Columbus' discovery as four elements: the Earth, which Columbus proved was round; water, representing the ocean; the compass, which showed the way, and the flagship, the Santa Maria. The result is a series of fountains surrounded by compass points etched into a marble walkway. In the center is a half-round stainless steel grid of the earth, topped by the Santa Maria. The cost is estimated at $100,000, most of which the committee hopes to raise locally. SAN SALVADOR SAND TO LA RABIDA In a moving ceremony on October 2, 1988 at Long Bay, San Salvador, a Bahamian flag and an urn of sand from the Columbus landfall beach were presented to the Spanish Ambassador by the people of San Salvador to be placed in La Rabida, the monastery near the port of Palos where Columbus began his epic voyage. These items were to be placed with their counterparts from all the nations of the Americas. In a museum section of the monas- tery, there is a full wall dedicated to the countries of Latin America, with urns of sand from each and their respective nation- al flags--but notably absent was the representation of the Bahamas. This has now been corrected. The ceremony was the highlight of the 1988 Fly-Out to San Salvador in Search of Columbus, sponsored by the Bahamas Chamber of Commerce and the Nassau Flying Club. Ambassadors from Spain, the United States and the Organization of American States, together with the chairman and executive director of the Bahamas Quincentennial Commission, and Roman Catholic Bishop of Nassau, Lawrence Burke, took part in two days of activities on this historic island where Columbus is believed to have first stepped ashore in 1492 and where 15th century Spanish artifacts (or "contact" materials) have been found by archaeologists. "The fly-out is an adventure into the history, culture and island life of San Salvador. It enjoys a distinguished level of participation and besides being an excellent forum to commemorate the quincentennial, it is also an enjoyable experience for all concerned," said Jose Gomez, committee co-chairman. GERMAN COLUMBUS SONG Will Hussung and Judith Laufer of New York City and San Antonio, Texas have collaborated on an English version of an old German song in tribute (?) to Columbus. Will is an actor--you've seen him in many TV commercials--and Judith is a student of Germanic languages. She insists that what she and Will have done is not a translation--but a "version" of the curious German song. In an honest attempt to give credit where credit is due, the collaborators researched the original and found two sources. One printed version they found credits Gustav Schulter. The copy of the music and German text produced here is from a book called "Deutsche Lieder" published by Insel Verlag of Frankfurt, Germa- ny, but no credit is given to an author. For those who are not musically inclined, the English version fits the melody of "Old MacDonald Had a Farm". Our thanks to Judith Laufer and Will Hussung for giving us permission to print their English version exclusively in "Discovery Five Hundred". And to the German author, whomever and wherever he or she is, we also extend our thanks. Ein Mann, der sich Kolumbus nannt 1. Ein Mann, der sich Kolumbus nannt, widewidewitt, bum, bum. war in der Schifffahrt wohlbekannt, widewidewitt, bum, bum. Es druckten ihm die Sorgen, schwer, er suchte neues Land im Meer. Gloria, Viktoria, widewidewitt, juchheirassa Gloria, Viktoria, widewidewitt, bum, bum. 2. Als er den Morgenkaffe trank, da rief er frohlich. "..Gott sei Dank!" Denn schnell kam mit der ersten Tram der span'sche Konig bei ihm an. 3. Kolumbus, sprach er, lieber Mann, du hast schon manche Tat getan! Eins fehlt noch unsrer Gloria: Entdecke mir Amerika! 4. Gesagt, getan, ein Mann, ein Wort, am selben Tag fuhr er noch fort. Und eines Morgens schrie er: Land! Wie deucht mir alles so bekannt! 5. Das Volk an Land stand stumm und zag. Da sagt Kolumbus: "Guten Tag! Ist hier vielleicht Amerika?" Da schrien alle Wilden: "Ja!!!" 6. Die Wilden waren sehr ershreckt Und schrien all: "Wir sind entdeckt!" Der Hauptling rief gleich: "Lieber Mann, du bist ja der Kolumbus dann!" KOLUMBUS English version c. 1988 Judith Laufer and Will Hussung 1. Kolumbus was the fellow's name, Viddy viddy vitt boom boom. And navigation was his game, Viddy viddy vitt boom boom. When cares oppressed him mightily, He sought new land across the sea. Gloria victoria, viddy viddy vitt, yuck hi rassah. Gloria victoria, viddy viddy vitt, boom boom. 2. One morning as he coffee drank, Viddy... He cried out gaily, "Gott sei Dank!" Viddy... He spied the monarch Ferdinand Arriving by the early tram. Gloria... 3. Said he, "Kolumbus, my good man," Viddy... "I want to shake you by the hand." Viddy... "I'll cover you with gloria, Discover me Amerika!" Gloria... 4. "No sooner said than done, okay." Viddy... He sailed away the selfsame day. Viddy... And cried upon espying shore, "I feel I've seen it all before!" Gloria... 5. The folks on land received a shock, Viddy... When says Kolumbus, "Guten Tag!" Viddy... "Would this here be Amerika?" The Indians shouted loudly, "Ja!" Gloria... 6. The Indian chief said with a bow, Viddy... "If you're Kolumbus, we say How!" Viddy... "We've been here eons, made no fuss, And you think you've discovered us!" Gloria... MOSAICO ATLANTICO MOSAICO ATLANTICO is an artistic event designed specifically as part of the international Columbus quincentennial celebration. This project has support both in the United States and in Spain and will capture the spirit of growth and advancement in the world since the historic voyage of Christopher Columbus. The artistic product will be supervised by Francisco Espinoza, the renowned artist from Spain, who is Peruvian by birth. Espinoza was born in Lima, Peru in 1926. After graduating from the School of Fine Arts of Lima, he traveled throughout South America exhibiting his work. Early recognition of his talents led him to Europe where he studied fresco painting at the School of Fine Arts of San Fernando and in Paris, where he continued his studies at the National Manufactory of Sevres. At the School of Fine Arts of Paris, he studied lithography. After organizing a workshop of lithography at the University of Cuba, he returned to Spain in 1968 to continue teaching, which had now become his passion. Always involving people with his work, he painted over 100 murals in schools and cultural centers in Spain and France. He founded the Casa Museo Espinoza, the private museum which has a varied collection of his works and has been designed exclusively for the exhibition of his paintings, murals, lithographs and ceramics. In 1978, he established his well-known summer workshop in Burgos, Spain, where students attend from all over the world. Francisco Espinoza was the recipient of a grant from the American/Spanish Joint Committee for Cultural and Educational Cooperation to set up a workshop in the United States in 1986. Since that time, Espinoza, his family and friends have been working to establish an international link so that he can bring his knowledge to people on both sides of the Atlantic. In 1983, Espinoza undertook the most ambitious project of his career, the model for the Mosaico Atlantico project. He designed, directed and created a mosaic mural on a gigantic wall of the expressway in Lima, Peru. Mosaico Atlantico proposes to create international good will through the exchange of art and to raise the awareness of people to the significance of the events surrounding the Quincentennial Celebration. This celebration of the historic voyage of Christopher Columbus will be commemorated by a series of mosaic workshops established in several cities in the U.S. by citizens of varied nationalities, ethnic, religious, and cultural backgrounds. From these workshops, apprentices will be trained and brought to Philadelphia to participate in the final grand mosaic mural. This mosaic will be created with the Maestro Espinoza orchestrating hundreds of citizens from through- out the country in a display worthy of the commemoration. It is intended that this mosaic will be presented to the people of the world at the Olympics in Barcelona in 1992. The mosaic will be executed on modular panels to facilitate its transportation. The artistic discipline chosen for this project is mosaic technique as mural art. Mosaic as an art form predates Mesopota- mia in the 4th millennium B.C. The reason for mosaic technique is its durability in exterior as well as interior locations. Mosaico Atlantico has many opportunities for sponsorships. The three week workshops in cities throughout the U.S. will take place throughout 1990-1991. Community groups will be involved in the actual organization and implementation of the workshops. Local sponsors will be needed to support the mosaic murals created in these workshops and will then own to exhibit or donate the finished mosaic murals created by the local groups. A major corporation or organization is being sought to commission Espinoza's creation of an image commemorating the event. This painting, which would be the property of its sponsor to keep or to donate to a cultural institution would then be reproduced into posters to commemorate the event. The print on the poster would give recognition to its patron(s). Additionally, limited edition lithographs without print, signed and numbered, would be sold. A percentage of these sales would go to fund the national initia- tive and the Mosaico Atlantico project. The federal Quincen- tenary Commission has established programs for private contribu- tors for the support of Quincentenary activities. Mosaico Atlantico has been designated as an Affiliated Organization of the International Columbian Quincentenary Alli- ance, Ltd. An update on this project and the specific locations chosen for the U.S. workshops will be announced in upcoming editions of this newsletter. For further information, please contact: Madelane Salmon, Project Director, Mosaico Atlantico, 1329 Lombard St., Philadelphia, PA 19147. Phone: (215) 732-9799. PROJECT SEGOVIA '92 Spanish Officials Back Quincentennial Mint Restoration Effort Lengthy consultations with the Spanish government by Glenn S. Murray, a member of the American Numismatic Association, have led to the founding on October 18, 1988, of the official mint restoration commission, chartered by Segovia's City Hall and titled Project Segovia '92. The restoration of the historic Segovia mint to a world- class museum is being financed entirely by the Spanish government as an official event of the Columbian Quincentennial. Project Segovia '92, as well as other events highlighted for 1992, seeks to strengthen cultural bonds between Spain and the New World, in this case through numismatics. The original seven charter members of the commission are listed on the official documents and each participating entity has a separate task: Segovia City Hall: Acquisition of building Spanish National Mint: Creation of museum displays Assembly of Castilla and Leon: Restoration of buildings Ministry of Public Works: Restoration of hydraulic technology and canals Ministry of Culture: Archival investigation of museum displays Segovia Savings Bank: Publicity and distribution of medals American Numismatic Association: Official numismatic council Glenn S. Murray is a lifelong coin collector, he has a degree in Hispanic Studies and has traveled extensively in Latin America. During a photographic tour of the mints in Spain he discovered the historic Segovia mint, sadly abandoned, though its buildings were amazingly still intact. Murray, and engraver-technician Ron Landis, are now living full time in Segovia. Their goal is to help re-create historic minting technologies in a unique living museum which will promote numismatics and the American Numismatic Association in a capti- vating way to a world wide audience. The project is being billed as "The Numismatic Event of the Columbian Quincentennial." Murray created the concept and currently acts as project director for the commission. Landis has drawn the technical plans for the re-creation of the historic water-wheel technology, and handcrafted the mint's first dies for hammer-struck medals. Together, they have self-financed the initial phases and start-up of Project Segovia '92. Their services to the Spanish commission as well as the ANA are offered gratuitously--as a promotion of numismatics in the upcoming celebration of the Spanish Discovery of America. Now that the project has been legally chartered in Spain, the Glenn S. Murray Numismatic Fund has been created to help repay loans for the creation and introduction of Project Segovia '92, and to cover personal living and operating expenses of ANA members working on the Segovia mint through 1992. Segovia was one of the world's first mechanized Mints (1586), and undeniably the most important in Spanish history. It was one of only a few Mints ever to roll coin impression onto metal strips using cylindrical dies and water power. The significance of the Segovia Mint is made evident by several interesting facts. King Philip II (1556-1598), with the help from his cousin, Archduke Ferdinand, Count of Triol, import- ed the latest German technology to establish Spain's first mechanized Mint in Segovia. The new process used water power to roll coin impressions onto flattened metal strips using cylindri- cal dies. The coins were then cut from the metal strips using large shears. Technicians left Innsbruck, Austria, Feb. 4, 1582, for Madrid, capital of the monarchy where the Mint was ordered built. Once they arrived, however, it was decided that there was insuf- ficient flow in Madrid's Manzanares River, and a new location was chosen on the Eresma River in Nearby Segovia. Coin production began on the new mill in 1586. Wooden water wheels, 13 feet in diameter, were employed to harness hydraulic power and drive the Mint equipment. It was superb quality of the coins produced on the hydraulic mill device that helped make Segovia Spain's primary coinage facility for more than 200 years. The mint was permanently closed in 1869 when it was simply abandoned and forgotten. It is ideally suited for a museum, considering its distinguished history, present condition and availability. Now, with the Quincentennial upon us, there is an occasion to assist in the international recognition of this historic facility. The National Commission for the Quincentennial of the Discovery of America is making the project one of its official events for 1992 for several reasons: 1. The Segovia mint was intimately linked with the New World mints, and struck vast quantities of American metal. 2. Museum displays will portray the history of the Spanish mints in the New World, and the "Peso" as the major world curren- cy for nearly three-hundred years. 3. American participation in the project via the American Numismatic Association. The museum itself is planned to be the most comprehensive numismatic showplace anywhere. Its specialty will be the history of mints and minting technology. The plans also call for a library, conference center, cafe, monthly magazine, and artistic landscaping of the extensive grounds surrounding and belonging to the mint, linking it with neighboring attractions. Individuals and organizations world-wide are invited to participate in this exciting project. Last September, the International Columbian Quincentenary Alliance and "Discovery Five Hundred" went on record in support of the project by sending endorsement letters to Spanish government officials and Quincen- tenary planners. The ICQA has formally endorsed Project Segovia '92. The Glenn S. Murray Numismatic Fund has been established to finance ANA representation on the official Spanish commission. This fund is managed directly by Glenn S. Murray in Segovia, and used only for personal living and operating expenses of ANA members working on the project. The ANA team has been provided office space, office expenses, and workshop area by City Hall in Segovia. Contributions go directly and exclusively towards personal living and operating expenses of the ANA personnel living in Segovia. Contributors will receive membership in, and the newsletter of the Glenn S. Murray Numismatic Fund, a book, "Segovia-Heritage of Mankind" (156p., 149 color photos, with map and mint photo), medals, video cassettes, and membership in the official Friends of the Segovia Mint. For more information on how you can support or participate in this project, you can write Glenn S. Murray, Apartado 315, 40080, Segovia, Spain. There are several categories of donations and the organization produces an excellent newsletter. CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS: PORTUGUESE SPY? The following is a transcript of a program aired on National Public Radio on October 10, 1988. It deals with the publication of two books in Portugal concerning the alleged covert operations of Christopher Columbus. Announcer: Imagine for a moment the following revisionist theory of the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Before he set sail, Columbus actually knew that there was a huge unexplored land between Lisbon and Zanadu. It was what we call Brazil. The Spaniards thought he was their man, but he was really a foreign spy--his mission, to throw Spain off the real route to the Indies and to keep them in the dark about Brazil. If you can imagine this, they you're probably Portuguese. Diana Smith who covers Lisbon for the "Financial Times" says that the Portuguese are talking about two books this year--one already out and the other soon to be published--two books that advance variations on the theme that Columbus was one of theirs. Smith: The one which has been published by a man called Augusto Mascurenhas Baretto, claims that Columbus, who he says the name was not Christopher Columbus but Cristobol Colon which is what the Spaniards call him, was in fact born in Portugal, he was the bastard child of a Portuguese prince and of a woman of Jewish descent whose grandfather discovered the Island of Madera in the Atlantic, which Portugal did discover. And his argument is that this man, Cristobol Colon, was sent by the King of Portugal, deliberately to Spain to detour Spain from the real route to the riches of the Indies or of India so that the Portu- guese, who were Spain's greatest rivals in the days of the navigation in the fifteenth century, could get there first. Announcer: Now that is the thesis of the book, "The Portu- guese Christopher Columbus, Secret Agent of King Don Juan II." What about the other book? Does it more or less follow the same lines? Smith: The other book more or less follows the same lines. It hasn't been published yet. Now in this case the family is descended from the wife of Cristobol Colon, a family called Perestrello. So they claim a family tie. The difference is that they claim that Colon, or Columbus, or whatever you want to call him is not the son of a prince called Fernando of Portugal, he was the son of Prince Henry the Navigator who was the great patron of all Portuguese navigators. Announcer: Now the claim that Columbus was Portuguese, as you point out, is not novel--it was first broached in the 1920s-- but could you explain to us how there could be so much confusion about, to begin with, what the man's name was? Smith: The mistake--the Portuguese author says--the mistake about the man's name and the Italian name Christofero Colombo came from the sixteenth century, when an Italian monk copied a letter by another Italian monk to the Queen of Spain, to Queen Isabella, mentioning one Christovanus Colonus. The 16th Century monk copied it into Cristoforos Columbus and from there, says the Portuguese author came the entire Columbus myth. Announcer: When anybody advances a theory that so radically revises what has been the received version for so many centuries, the question inevitably is presented, how could everyone been so wrong? Smith: Well I think maybe we start from the principle that nobody is still sure of who Columbus was. Salvadore de Madariaga not that many years ago claimed that he was a Catalan Jew. There have been thousands--not thousands, but certainly hundreds--of theories about who this mysterious person was. The French at one time claimed he was a French corsair, or a Corsican Pirate who turned respectable. You name the country, and they have claimed Christopher Columbus, including the Norse, I think, at one time who claimed he was a Viking. So for the Portuguese theory to be around is not that surprising in that context. PHILEAS IN GENOA Correspondent Dan Amato of Columbus, Wisconsin, has provided us with a summary of the Fourth Phileas Society Convocation held in Genoa last October. Twenty Christopher Columbus enthusiasts from Iceland, California, Florida, Ohio, Georgia, Wisconsin, New Jersey, and Washington, D.C. visited Genoa during the first week of October. Genoa has been variously described as the greatest port of the Mediterranean and the world before 1492, the center of banking and finance and commerce in the world at that time, the source of the financing of the Columbus expedition and, of course, the birthplace of Christopher Columbus. The participants toured the Genoa harbor and were informed of the plans for 1992, which include the rehabilitation of warehouses on the docks, the construction of exhibitor space and a shopping area. Of special interest was the great Christopher Columbus monument built in the early 19th century showing Colum- bus with a native Indian at his feet. Not far from the monument is the reputed home of the Columbus family and probable birth- place of Christopher Columbus. Amato and friends attended Mass in the Church where Columbus was baptized. Within this church is a stained glass window depicting Columbus. The group took a side trip to Moconesi, the ancestral home of Giovani Columbo and Domenici Columbo, Christopher's grandfa- ther and father, respectively. The area is known for its produc- tion of slate (about 95% of the slate used in billiard tables). Mayor Ferrari greeted the group and hosted a viewing of a poster series on the life and voyages of Christopher Columbus created by Senator Taviani, international Columbus expert. Several sets of the posters were sent to the Unites States for exhibits. Back in Genoa, the group visited the "Olivella", the old city gates where Columbus' father was gatekeeper. They were given a V.I.P. viewing of copies of over sixty written documents relating to Columbus' life in Italy from his birth to his last will in the "Sala Columbia", the Columbus archives. The Phileas Society sponsored the restoration of a book containing Columbus' original letters to the bank of Saint Giorgio concerning finan- cial matters. At the office of the Mayor of Genoa the group viewed the original copy of the "Book of Privileges" from the Spanish Crown and four letters proving Columbus' Genoese heri- tage. This book is being reproduced by the Italian government and copy #1 will be given to the President of the United States in 1992. The highlight of the trip was a banquet with Genoese offi- cials joining the members of the Phileas Society, where the guest of honor was Paolo Emilio Taviani, Vice President of the Italian Senate, third-ranking Italian Government Official and the world's foremost expert on Christopher Columbus. The Phileas Society has conducted its earlier Columbus Convocations in Florida, Santo Domingo and Spain. COLUMBUS OPERA According to an item which appeared in the "Philadelphia Inquirer" on November 25, 1988, playwright David Henry Hwang, whose M. Butterfly won the Tony Award for best Broadway play last season, hopes to rediscover his musical roots when he teams up with composer Philip Glass to create "The Voyage", a work commis- sioned by the Metropolitan Opera. The production is set to be staged in October, 1992 to mark the 500th anniversary of Columbus' discovery of America, Metropolitan Opera official said. The production, Hwang's second collaboration with Glass, is to be directed by David Pountney of the English National Opera.