"Discovery Five Hundred"
Newsletter of the International Columbian Quincentenary Alliance
Volume IV, Number 1, January 1989
     Doug Peck, the sailor who took on the National Geographic
and sailed solo across the Atlantic following the Columbus Log
and ended up re-affirming the probability of Columbus' landfall
on Watlings-San Salvador (see "Discovery Five Hundred": Vol. III,
No. 1), has undertaken an ambitious project to reconstruct the
Nina in time for 1992.  He has formed a non-profit corporation to
build a replica of the Nina, Columbus' favorite ship and the one
in which he returned to Spain and which was later used by Vicente
Yanez Pinzon on several voyages of discovery in the New World. 
Peck is still awaiting the necessary approvals from government
agencies for his organization, but he has already assembled a
board of governors of very talented and dedicated men for the
project.  Charles E. Morgan, one of the leading naval architects
of sailing vessels in the U.S., is already at work on the design.
     Nina will be a 67 foot, four masted, square rigged vessel
designed using the research of Eugene Lyon as reported in the
November, 1986 issue of the "National Geographic Magazine".  Nina
will be built of molded fiberglass that will resemble the wood
used in the construction of 15th century vessels.  The deck and
interior will be wood, formed and treated to carry out the
authentic look.  This vessel will be seaworthy in every respect
and will be manned by a crew of 24 experienced sailors, as was
the Nina.  Recognizing that much has happened in navigational
science since 1492, Peck confesses that they are going to install
a diesel engine and generator and modern electronics for safety,
but these will be camouflaged to retain the authentic appearance.
     Plans are to sail the vessel to Palos (Huelva), Spain in the
summer of 1992, then on September 17, (September 8, Columbus'
Julian calendar) leave from Gomera (weather permitting) and in 34
days make landfall on Guanahani-San Salvador in the Bahamas
exactly 500 years after Columbus.
     Peck has been in contact with the Spanish Quincentenary
Committee through the Phileas Society and has been assured of
their enthusiastic support and cooperation in this project.  He
is also coordinating the project with the Bahamas Quincentennial
     Peck has developed a logo for his Columbus Expedition.  The
logo is based on Columbus' verbal description of it.  This logo
will be on the main course (mainsail) of Nina as well as on the
flags and pennants that they will fly.  The initials of Ferdinand
and Isabella were copied from examples of 15th century script,
but the cross is an original created by Peck.  Columbus said only
that he used a Maltese cross--and therefore, all previous ver-
sions of the logo have shown the typical square cross as used on
the shields and pennants of the Knights of Malta.  Peck claims
that since Columbus was a devout Catholic and set up a Christian
crucifix at each of his new discoveries to claim possession for
Spain, he would have used the commonly accepted crucifix with the
longer lower leg and simply styled the pattern after the Maltese
fashion.  Accordingly, he has adopted this hybrid model in his
unique logo.
     Doug Peck has received a great deal of attention since his
solo sail across the Atlantic in late 1987.  On October 13, 1988
he delivered a paper at the Annual Meeting of The Society for the
History of Discoveries held at University of Minnesota.  His
paper, titled "Reconstruction and Analysis of the 1492 Columbus
Log From a Sailor-Navigator Viewpoint" has been reproduced in a
37-page monograph.  Part I presents navigational data and obser-
vations made by Peck in sailing and duplicating the daily heading
and distance reported in the Columbus log for the 34 days from
Gomera to Guanahani.  Part II contains an analysis and thesis on
the voyage from Guanahani to the several islands Columbus visited
and named before crossing to Cuba.  In this section, Peck also
takes a critical look at the theory proposed by both S.E. Morison
and Joseph Judge as the "final solution" to the landfall contro-
versy.  Four appendices contain supporting navigational data and
illustrative charts.  "Discovery Five Hundred" has been given
permission to quote from the paper, and we have elected to go
straight to Peck's conclusion, which appears on page 28.
     "I have introduced three vital and often neglected approach-
es to solving the fascinating but perplexing problem of the
Columbus landfall in the New World.  The first was my use of a
sailing vessel to duplicate the track from Gomera, thus avoiding
the mathematical errors inherent in using suspect estimated
factors to solve a precise navigation course triangulation
problem.  The second is my application of meteorological forces
that influenced the Columbus track.  This strong influencing
factor has been overlooked in the past, producing many erroneous
conclusions based upon one or two isolated log entries rather
than looking at the broad overriding meteorological picture.  The
third and equally important factor was to bring out, or at least
re-emphasize, the personality, character, state of mind, and
writing style of Columbus and show how this should be a strong
consideration in interpreting some of the ambiguities of the log.
     "Enumerated earlier were the three criteria a proposed
Guanahani must fulfill.  First: be located at the end of a
reconstructed track across the Atlantic; I concluded, naturally
enough, that based upon the Atlantic track, San Salvador quali-
fied as the most probable Guanahani of the Columbus landfall.  In
retrospect, I believe the reason Luis Marden's computer track
ended so far south was because he gave too much weight to leeway
and underestimated the strong currents from the southeast in the
last 600 miles east of the Bahamas.  Second: conform to the
physical characteristics described in the log; In this criteria,
San Salvador receives nearly a 100% grade on all points.  Samana
Cay fails miserably...  Third: be located at the starting point
of the track through the Bahamas.  This criteria is satisfied by
the documented track...
     "In summary, I have presented a straight forward, logical,
and scientifically proven thesis that San Salvador is by far the
most probable Guanahani of Columbus' landfall.  It is at the end
of an accurately sailed track across the Atlantic as described in
Columbus' log, it fits better than any other island the physical
and geographical description in the log and it is at the starting
point of a systematic and scientifically re-created track through
the Bahamas arrived at by a searching analysis of the overwhelm-
ing pertinent navigational and meteorological data in the log
rather than being misled by ambiguous, allegorical and romanti-
cally inspired 15th Century rhetoric."
Anyone interested in learning more about Peck's "Nina" project or
how to obtain a copy of his complete paper can write: Douglas T.
Peck, 626 Casa Bella Drive, Bradenton, FL 34209.
     An item in "BOAT/U.S.", the Newsletter of the Boat Owners
Association of the United States, Summer, 1988, adds information
to what we already know about the historic transatlantic sail
following Columbus' route to the New World.  An invitation is
being extended to give ordinary cruising sailors a chance to be a
part of this historic sailing fleet which sets out from Palos,
Spain on August 3, 1992.
     Concerning the timing of the event, while August 3 is the
correct historic date for the departure from Spain, the second
leg of the voyage will not set out from Gomera in the Canary
Islands on September 12 (when Columbus set sail), but will delay
the departure until November 12 to avoid the hurricane season. 
The destination remains San Salvador, or Watling Island, in the
Bahamas where Columbus is believed to have first landed on
October 12, 1492.
     World Cruising, Ltd., organizer of the event, intends to
keep "America 500" a non-commercial rally for amateur sailors. 
For information, write World Cruising Ltd., P.O. Box 165, London,
England WC1B 5LA.
     "The Washington Post Magazine" (Sunday, October 9, 1988)
reports that, thanks to the obsession of a Columbus fan, the
search goes on for the lost Santa Maria.  Daniel Koski-Karell of
Arlington, Virginia is on a mission to find Columbus' lost
flagship, which is believed to have gone down off the coast of
Cap Haitien, Haiti, on Christmas Eve, 1492.  "I'm planning two or
three trips a year to Haiti over the next several years," Koski-
Karell says.  "I'd like to find the Santa Maria by 1992, in time
for the 500th anniversary of Columbus' first voyage to the New
World."  To date, he's already made about 30 dives near the
probable wreck site.
     Koski-Karell is one of the world's top archaeologists
specializing in underwater diving.  In the last decade he's
worked as a consultant on projects that have recovered nearly 500
sunken vessels.  He first began reading about archaeology in 1971
while he lay in a Cam Ranh Bay convalescent hospital in Vietnam,
recovering from a mortar wound to his right leg.  He went on to
get a master's degree in archaeology.
     His obsession with Columbus is a labor of love.  Take, for
instance, the hours he spent searching through hundreds of
portraits of the Italian navigator till he found one depicting a
bare-headed Columbus with knobby arthritic growths on his ears. 
"In almost all the pictures of Columbus, he's wearing a hat that
covers his ears," Koski-Karell says.  "I knew he suffered from
arthritis, so I wanted to know if he had the form of the disease
that causes this type of growth.  It was a tedious search, but at
least that's one mystery that's cleared up."
     It is obvious how Koski-Karell plans to celebrate the
anniversary of Columbus' discovery of America.  "I'll be in Haiti
again.  One of the mysteries of the archaeology of Columbus is
where his land settlement there is.  I have a friend who's a
medical missionary and archaeologist in Haiti who thinks he's
narrowed down the location.  Maybe the two of us can commune with
Columbus' spirit there."  (Edited from "J Street", a feature in
"The Washington Post Sunday Magazine".  Material credited to Bill
Sautter and sent to "Discovery Five Hundred" courtesy of Bruce
McElfresh of "National Geographic Magazine".)
     An item by Ellen K. Coughlin in "The Chronicle of Higher
Education" reports on research by Francisco Guerra which appeared
in the fall issue of "Social Science History".  The theory: the
epidemic that killed many of the Spanish settlers who landed with
Christopher Columbus on Hispaniola in 1493, as well as most of
the island's native Indians, was a swine influenza, according to
the medical researcher at the Universidad de Alcala de Henares in
Madrid.  He says that swine flu was more likely responsible for
the devastation that followed Columbus' second voyage than was
malaria, small pox, or yellow fever--all of which have been named
by historians as possible causes.
     According to contemporary sources cited by Dr. Guerra,
including a letter from Columbus himself, an acute infectious
disease broke out on December 9, 1493, in a settlement known as
La Isabela on Hispaniola (now Haiti and the Dominican Republic). 
The disease was highly contagious, with a short incubation
period, and affected a large population simultaneously.  It was
characterized by high fever, prostration, and significant mortal-
     Dr. Guerra's contention that swine influenza was responsible
for the epidemic is based partly on historical records showing
that Columbus made a stop at the Canary Islands, where he took on
eight sows.
     Dr. Guerra argues that the sows, kept in the hold of the
ship, would have had no contact with the settlers until their
landing on Hispaniola, an island where that type of animal was
previously unknown.  The classical clinical description of
influenza, he says, matched historical accounts of the 1493
epidemic.  Moreover, he argues, it is generally accepted today
that influenza epidemics with excessive mortality rates are
caused by animal viruses.
     The December 1988 issue of "Cruising World" carries a report
on a classroom program in the wake of Columbus.  According to the
article, the Route of Discovery Race will be the focus of a
classroom education program designed to spark students' interest
in sailing, the sea and our global environment through the spirit
of adventure.
     As the lead event in this year's Student Ocean Challenge
(SOC) program, students will have the opportunity to track the
fleet which sails from Puerto Sherry, Spain, to Santo Domingo,
retracing the route sailed by Christopher Columbus in 1492.  The
SOC school program originally began as a part of the first SOC
Challenge, a single-handed round-the-world race, in 1982 to 1983
with a handful of middle school students in Newport, RI.  Since
then, the SOC classroom programs have expanded to include a
variety of other expeditions.
     The SOC provides subscribers with teaching materials,
tracking charts, biweekly bulletins and real-time access to event
news through computer.  Information is available from Mame
Reynolds, Project Coordinator, SOC, Newport School Administration
Building, Mary St., Newport, RI 02840.
     Columbus Day, 1988 took on special meaning in Boalsburg,
Pa., site of the Columbus Chapel (see "Discovery Five Hundred",
Vol. III, No. 3).  In celebration of the 496th anniversary of the
discovery of the new world, the Boal Mansion Museum sponsored a
two-day "Ethnic and Cultural Heritage Festival".  One of the
highlights of the event was the symbolic burial of a tomahawk by
Christopher Lee, director of the museum and an eighth generation
direct descendant of Christopher Columbus, and Bob Moore, a
Cherokee Indian.  The tomahawk was buried as a symbol of cultural
unity.  Lee explained that he has adopted the theme of cultural
awareness leading to cultural harmony for future celebrations
climaxing in 1992 and it ties in with the theme of the Pennsylva-
nia Quincentenary Commission, which is "Ethnic Diversity".  Lee
claims that his Columbus Chapel museum bears the distinction of
having "the strongest connection with Columbus in the nation."
     In past issues we have listed the variety of events being
commemorated in 1992 in addition to those directly related to the
Quincentenary.  Our correspondent in Belleview, Washington,
Thornton Thomas, informs us of another one, dealing specifically
with the Pacific Northwest 300 years after the Discovery of
America in 1492.  Mr. Thomas is a member of the Discovery 1992
Maritime Committee, composed of members from Oregon, Washington
State, and British Columbia.  They're planning 1992 celebrations
of a Bicentennial: the 1792 discovery and entry of the Columbia
River by Captain Robert Gray, giving the United States future
claim to the Oregon Territory.  British Captain George Vancouver
and Spanish Captain Quadra charted the inland passage waterways
and disproved the Northwest Passage theory.  They also settled
the Nootka incident, which later opened the Spanish Pacific Ocean
to foreign flag ships.
     In Norristown, Pennsylvania, a 1926 pledge to build a
monument to Christopher Columbus is finally being fulfilled. 
Sixty-two years ago the Borough Council and Italian immigrants of
Norristown had collected money to erect a monument to Columbus. 
However, the money was diverted to help the needy during the
depression, with a promise to build the monument in the future--
substituting a simple stone marker at the time.  On Columbus Day,
1988, the project of the "Hello Columbus 1992 Committee", founded
in 1984 by Frank Ciaccio, was unveiled in a public ceremony
attended by representatives of the governments of Italy and
Spain, local and state politicians and about 300 members of the
borough's large Italian community.  The memorial is to be com-
pleted in 1992 and was designed by architect Alfred Panepinto. 
His design represents Columbus' discovery as four elements: the
Earth, which Columbus proved was round; water, representing the
ocean; the compass, which showed the way, and the flagship, the
Santa Maria.  The result is a series of fountains surrounded by
compass points etched into a marble walkway.  In the center is a
half-round stainless steel grid of the earth, topped by the Santa
Maria.  The cost is estimated at $100,000, most of which the
committee hopes to raise locally.
     In a moving ceremony on October 2, 1988 at Long Bay, San
Salvador, a Bahamian flag and an urn of sand from the Columbus
landfall beach were presented to the Spanish Ambassador by the
people of San Salvador to be placed in La Rabida, the monastery
near the port of Palos where Columbus began his epic voyage. 
These items were to be placed with their counterparts from all
the nations of the Americas.  In a museum section of the monas-
tery, there is a full wall dedicated to the countries of Latin
America, with urns of sand from each and their respective nation-
al flags--but notably absent was the representation of the
Bahamas.  This has now been corrected.  The ceremony was the
highlight of the 1988 Fly-Out to San Salvador in Search of
Columbus, sponsored by the Bahamas Chamber of Commerce and the
Nassau Flying Club.  Ambassadors from Spain, the United States
and the Organization of American States, together with the
chairman and executive director of the Bahamas Quincentennial
Commission, and Roman Catholic Bishop of Nassau, Lawrence Burke,
took part in two days of activities on this historic island where
Columbus is believed to have first stepped ashore in 1492 and
where 15th century Spanish artifacts (or "contact" materials)
have been found by archaeologists.  "The fly-out is an adventure
into the history, culture and island life of San Salvador.  It
enjoys a distinguished level of participation and besides being
an excellent forum to commemorate the quincentennial, it is also
an enjoyable experience for all concerned," said Jose Gomez,
committee co-chairman.
     Will Hussung and Judith Laufer of New York City and San
Antonio, Texas have collaborated on an English version of an old
German song in tribute (?) to Columbus.  Will is an actor--you've
seen him in many TV commercials--and Judith is a student of
Germanic languages.  She insists that what she and Will have done
is not a translation--but a "version" of the curious German song. 
In an honest attempt to give credit where credit is due, the
collaborators researched the original and found two sources.  One
printed version they found credits Gustav Schulter.  The copy of
the music and German text produced here is from a book called
"Deutsche Lieder" published by Insel Verlag of Frankfurt, Germa-
ny, but no credit is given to an author.  For those who are not
musically inclined, the English version fits the melody of "Old
MacDonald Had a Farm".  Our thanks to Judith Laufer and Will
Hussung for giving us permission to print their English version
exclusively in "Discovery Five Hundred".  And to the German
author, whomever and wherever he or she is, we also extend our
                 Ein Mann, der sich Kolumbus nannt
1.   Ein Mann, der sich Kolumbus nannt,
          widewidewitt, bum, bum.
     war in der Schifffahrt wohlbekannt,
          widewidewitt, bum, bum.
     Es druckten ihm die Sorgen, schwer,
     er suchte neues Land im Meer.
          Gloria, Viktoria, widewidewitt, juchheirassa
          Gloria, Viktoria, widewidewitt, bum, bum.
2.   Als er den Morgenkaffe trank, da rief er frohlich. "..Gott
     sei Dank!"
     Denn schnell kam mit der ersten Tram der span'sche Konig bei
     ihm an.
3.   Kolumbus, sprach er, lieber Mann, du hast schon manche Tat
     Eins fehlt noch unsrer Gloria: Entdecke mir Amerika!
4.   Gesagt, getan, ein Mann, ein Wort, am selben Tag fuhr er
     noch fort.
     Und eines Morgens schrie er: Land!  Wie deucht mir alles so
5.   Das Volk an Land stand stumm und zag.  Da sagt Kolumbus:
     "Guten Tag!
     Ist hier vielleicht Amerika?"  Da schrien alle Wilden:
6.   Die Wilden waren sehr ershreckt Und schrien all: "Wir sind
     Der Hauptling rief gleich: "Lieber Mann, du bist ja der
     Kolumbus dann!"
                      English version c. 1988
                  Judith Laufer and Will Hussung
1.   Kolumbus was the fellow's name,
          Viddy viddy vitt boom boom.
     And navigation was his game,
          Viddy viddy vitt boom boom.
     When cares oppressed him mightily,
     He sought new land across the sea.
          Gloria victoria, viddy viddy vitt, yuck hi rassah.
          Gloria victoria, viddy viddy vitt, boom boom.
2.   One morning as he coffee drank,
     He cried out gaily, "Gott sei Dank!"
     He spied the monarch Ferdinand
     Arriving by the early tram.
3.   Said he, "Kolumbus, my good man,"
     "I want to shake you by the hand."
     "I'll cover you with gloria,
     Discover me Amerika!"
4.   "No sooner said than done, okay."
     He sailed away the selfsame day.
     And cried upon espying shore,
     "I feel I've seen it all before!"
5.   The folks on land received a shock,
     When says Kolumbus, "Guten Tag!"
     "Would this here be Amerika?"
     The Indians shouted loudly, "Ja!"
6.   The Indian chief said with a bow,
     "If you're Kolumbus, we say How!"
     "We've been here eons, made no fuss,
     And you think you've discovered us!"
     MOSAICO ATLANTICO is an artistic event designed specifically
as part of the international Columbus quincentennial celebration. 
This project has support both in the United States and in Spain
and will capture the spirit of growth and advancement in the
world since the historic voyage of Christopher Columbus.  The
artistic product will be supervised by Francisco Espinoza, the
renowned artist from Spain, who is Peruvian by birth.
     Espinoza was born in Lima, Peru in 1926.  After graduating
from the School of Fine Arts of Lima, he traveled throughout
South America exhibiting his work.  Early recognition of his
talents led him to Europe where he studied fresco painting at the
School of Fine Arts of San Fernando and in Paris, where he
continued his studies at the National Manufactory of Sevres.  At
the School of Fine Arts of Paris, he studied lithography.  After
organizing a workshop of lithography at the University of Cuba,
he returned to Spain in 1968 to continue teaching, which had now
become his passion.  Always involving people with his work, he
painted over 100 murals in schools and cultural centers in Spain
and France.  He founded the Casa Museo Espinoza, the private
museum which has a varied collection of his works and has been
designed exclusively for the exhibition of his paintings, murals,
lithographs and ceramics.  In 1978, he established his well-known
summer workshop in Burgos, Spain, where students attend from all
over the world.  Francisco Espinoza was the recipient of a grant
from the American/Spanish Joint Committee for Cultural and
Educational Cooperation to set up a workshop in the United States
in 1986.  Since that time, Espinoza, his family and friends have
been working to establish an international link so that he can
bring his knowledge to people on both sides of the Atlantic.
     In 1983, Espinoza undertook the most ambitious project of
his career, the model for the Mosaico Atlantico project.  He
designed, directed and created a mosaic mural on a gigantic wall
of the expressway in Lima, Peru.  Mosaico Atlantico proposes to
create international good will through the exchange of art and to
raise the awareness of people to the significance of the events
surrounding the Quincentennial Celebration.  This celebration of
the historic voyage of Christopher Columbus will be commemorated
by a series of mosaic workshops established in several cities in
the U.S. by citizens of varied nationalities, ethnic, religious,
and cultural backgrounds.  From these workshops, apprentices will
be trained and brought to Philadelphia to participate in the
final grand mosaic mural.  This mosaic will be created with the
Maestro Espinoza orchestrating hundreds of citizens from through-
out the country in a display worthy of the commemoration.  It is
intended that this mosaic will be presented to the people of the
world at the Olympics in Barcelona in 1992.  The mosaic will be
executed on modular panels to facilitate its transportation.
     The artistic discipline chosen for this project is mosaic
technique as mural art.  Mosaic as an art form predates Mesopota-
mia in the 4th millennium B.C.  The reason for mosaic technique
is its durability in exterior as well as interior locations.
     Mosaico Atlantico has many opportunities for sponsorships. 
The three week workshops in cities throughout the U.S. will take
place throughout 1990-1991.  Community groups will be involved in
the actual organization and implementation of the workshops. 
Local sponsors will be needed to support the mosaic murals
created in these workshops and will then own to exhibit or donate
the finished mosaic murals created by the local groups.  A major
corporation or organization is being sought to commission
Espinoza's creation of an image commemorating the event.  This
painting, which would be the property of its sponsor to keep or
to donate to a cultural institution would then be reproduced into
posters to commemorate the event.  The print on the poster would
give recognition to its patron(s).  Additionally, limited edition
lithographs without print, signed and numbered, would be sold.  A
percentage of these sales would go to fund the national initia-
tive and the Mosaico Atlantico project.  The federal Quincen-
tenary Commission has established programs for private contribu-
tors for the support of Quincentenary activities.
     Mosaico Atlantico has been designated as an Affiliated
Organization of the International Columbian Quincentenary Alli-
ance, Ltd.  An update on this project and the specific locations
chosen for the U.S. workshops will be announced in upcoming
editions of this newsletter.  For further information, please
contact: Madelane Salmon, Project Director, Mosaico Atlantico,
1329 Lombard St., Philadelphia, PA 19147.  Phone: (215) 732-9799.
Spanish Officials Back Quincentennial Mint Restoration Effort
     Lengthy consultations with the Spanish government by Glenn
S. Murray, a member of the American Numismatic Association, have
led to the founding on October 18, 1988, of the official mint
restoration commission, chartered by Segovia's City Hall and
titled Project Segovia '92.
     The restoration of the historic Segovia mint to a world-
class museum is being financed entirely by the Spanish government
as an official event of the Columbian Quincentennial.  Project
Segovia '92, as well as other events highlighted for 1992, seeks
to strengthen cultural bonds between Spain and the New World, in
this case through numismatics.  The original seven charter
members of the commission are listed on the official documents
and each participating entity has a separate task:
     Segovia City Hall: Acquisition of building
     Spanish National Mint: Creation of museum displays
     Assembly of Castilla and Leon: Restoration of buildings
     Ministry of Public Works: Restoration of hydraulic
     technology and canals
     Ministry of Culture: Archival investigation of museum
     Segovia Savings Bank: Publicity and distribution of medals
     American Numismatic Association: Official numismatic council
     Glenn S. Murray is a lifelong coin collector, he has a
degree in Hispanic Studies and has traveled extensively in Latin
America.  During a photographic tour of the mints in Spain he
discovered the historic Segovia mint, sadly abandoned, though its
buildings were amazingly still intact.
     Murray, and engraver-technician Ron Landis, are now living
full time in Segovia.  Their goal is to help re-create historic
minting technologies in a unique living museum which will promote
numismatics and the American Numismatic Association in a capti-
vating way to a world wide audience.  The project is being billed
as "The Numismatic Event of the Columbian Quincentennial."
     Murray created the concept and currently acts as project
director for the commission.  Landis has drawn the technical
plans for the re-creation of the historic water-wheel technology,
and handcrafted the mint's first dies for hammer-struck medals. 
Together, they have self-financed the initial phases and start-up
of Project Segovia '92.  Their services to the Spanish commission
as well as the ANA are offered gratuitously--as a promotion of
numismatics in the upcoming celebration of the Spanish Discovery
of America.
     Now that the project has been legally chartered in Spain,
the Glenn S. Murray Numismatic Fund has been created to help
repay loans for the creation and introduction of Project Segovia
'92, and to cover personal living and operating expenses of ANA
members working on the Segovia mint through 1992.
     Segovia was one of the world's first mechanized Mints
(1586), and undeniably the most important in Spanish history.  It
was one of only a few Mints ever to roll coin impression onto
metal strips using cylindrical dies and water power.
     The significance of the Segovia Mint is made evident by
several interesting facts.  King Philip II (1556-1598), with the
help from his cousin, Archduke Ferdinand, Count of Triol, import-
ed the latest German technology to establish Spain's first
mechanized Mint in Segovia.  The new process used water power to
roll coin impressions onto flattened metal strips using cylindri-
cal dies.  The coins were then cut from the metal strips using
large shears.
     Technicians left Innsbruck, Austria, Feb. 4, 1582, for
Madrid, capital of the monarchy where the Mint was ordered built. 
Once they arrived, however, it was decided that there was insuf-
ficient flow in Madrid's Manzanares River, and a new location was
chosen on the Eresma River in Nearby Segovia.  Coin production
began on the new mill in 1586.
     Wooden water wheels, 13 feet in diameter, were employed to
harness hydraulic power and drive the Mint equipment.  It was
superb quality of the coins produced on the hydraulic mill device
that helped make Segovia Spain's primary coinage facility for
more than 200 years.
     The mint was permanently closed in 1869 when it was simply
abandoned and forgotten.  It is ideally suited for a museum,
considering its distinguished history, present condition and
availability.  Now, with the Quincentennial upon us, there is an
occasion to assist in the international recognition of this
historic facility.
     The National Commission for the Quincentennial of the
Discovery of America is making the project one of its official
events for 1992 for several reasons:
     1. The Segovia mint was intimately linked with the New World
mints, and struck vast quantities of American metal.
     2. Museum displays will portray the history of the Spanish
mints in the New World, and the "Peso" as the major world curren-
cy for nearly three-hundred years.
     3. American participation in the project via the American
Numismatic Association.
     The museum itself is planned to be the most comprehensive
numismatic showplace anywhere.  Its specialty will be the history
of mints and minting technology.  The plans also call for a
library, conference center, cafe, monthly magazine, and artistic
landscaping of the extensive grounds surrounding and belonging to
the mint, linking it with neighboring attractions.
     Individuals and organizations world-wide are invited to
participate in this exciting project.  Last September, the
International Columbian Quincentenary Alliance and "Discovery
Five Hundred" went on record in support of the project by sending
endorsement letters to Spanish government officials and Quincen-
tenary planners.  The ICQA has formally endorsed Project Segovia
'92.  The Glenn S. Murray Numismatic Fund has been established to
finance ANA representation on the official Spanish commission. 
This fund is managed directly by Glenn S. Murray in Segovia, and
used only for personal living and operating expenses of ANA
members working on the project.  The ANA team has been provided
office space, office expenses, and workshop area by City Hall in
Segovia.  Contributions go directly and exclusively towards
personal living and operating expenses of the ANA personnel
living in Segovia.  Contributors will receive membership in, and
the newsletter of the Glenn S. Murray Numismatic Fund, a book,
"Segovia-Heritage of Mankind" (156p., 149 color photos, with map
and mint photo), medals, video cassettes, and membership in the
official Friends of the Segovia Mint.
     For more information on how you can support or participate
in this project, you can write Glenn S. Murray, Apartado 315,
40080, Segovia, Spain.  There are several categories of donations
and the organization produces an excellent newsletter.
     The following is a transcript of a program aired on National
Public Radio on October 10, 1988.  It deals with the publication
of two books in Portugal concerning the alleged covert operations
of Christopher Columbus.
     Announcer: Imagine for a moment the following revisionist
theory of the voyages of Christopher Columbus.  Before he set
sail, Columbus actually knew that there was a huge unexplored
land between Lisbon and Zanadu.  It was what we call Brazil.  The
Spaniards thought he was their man, but he was really a foreign
spy--his mission, to throw Spain off the real route to the Indies
and to keep them in the dark about Brazil.  If you can imagine
this, they you're probably Portuguese.
     Diana Smith who covers Lisbon for the "Financial Times" says
that the Portuguese are talking about two books this year--one
already out and the other soon to be published--two books that
advance variations on the theme that Columbus was one of theirs.
     Smith: The one which has been published by a man called
Augusto Mascurenhas Baretto, claims that Columbus, who he says
the name was not Christopher Columbus but Cristobol Colon which
is what the Spaniards call him, was in fact born in Portugal, he
was the bastard child of a Portuguese prince and of a woman of
Jewish descent whose grandfather discovered the Island of Madera
in the Atlantic, which Portugal did discover.  And his argument
is that this man, Cristobol Colon, was sent by the King of
Portugal, deliberately to Spain to detour Spain from the real
route to the riches of the Indies or of India so that the Portu-
guese, who were Spain's greatest rivals in the days of the
navigation in the fifteenth century, could get there first.
     Announcer: Now that is the thesis of the book, "The Portu-
guese Christopher Columbus, Secret Agent of King Don Juan II." 
What about the other book?  Does it more or less follow the same
     Smith: The other book more or less follows the same lines. 
It hasn't been published yet.  Now in this case the family is
descended from the wife of Cristobol Colon, a family called
Perestrello.  So they claim a family tie.  The difference is that
they claim that Colon, or Columbus, or whatever you want to call
him is not the son of a prince called Fernando of Portugal, he
was the son of Prince Henry the Navigator who was the great
patron of all Portuguese navigators.
     Announcer: Now the claim that Columbus was Portuguese, as
you point out, is not novel--it was first broached in the 1920s--
but could you explain to us how there could be so much confusion
about, to begin with, what the man's name was?
     Smith: The mistake--the Portuguese author says--the mistake
about the man's name and the Italian name Christofero Colombo
came from the sixteenth century, when an Italian monk copied a
letter by another Italian monk to the Queen of Spain, to Queen
Isabella, mentioning one Christovanus Colonus.  The 16th Century
monk copied it into Cristoforos Columbus and from there, says the
Portuguese author came the entire Columbus myth.
     Announcer: When anybody advances a theory that so radically
revises what has been the received version for so many centuries,
the question inevitably is presented, how could everyone been so
     Smith: Well I think maybe we start from the principle that
nobody is still sure of who Columbus was.  Salvadore de Madariaga
not that many years ago claimed that he was a Catalan Jew.  There
have been thousands--not thousands, but certainly hundreds--of
theories about who this mysterious person was.
     The French at one time claimed he was a French corsair, or a
Corsican Pirate who turned respectable.  You name the country,
and they have claimed Christopher Columbus, including the Norse,
I think, at one time who claimed he was a Viking.  So for the
Portuguese theory to be around is not that surprising in that
     Correspondent Dan Amato of Columbus, Wisconsin, has provided
us with a summary of the Fourth Phileas Society Convocation held
in Genoa last October.  Twenty Christopher Columbus enthusiasts
from Iceland, California, Florida, Ohio, Georgia, Wisconsin, New
Jersey, and Washington, D.C. visited Genoa during the first week
of October.  Genoa has been variously described as the greatest
port of the Mediterranean and the world before 1492, the center
of banking and finance and commerce in the world at that time,
the source of the financing of the Columbus expedition and, of
course, the birthplace of Christopher Columbus.
     The participants toured the Genoa harbor and were informed
of the plans for 1992, which include the rehabilitation of
warehouses on the docks, the construction of exhibitor space and
a shopping area.  Of special interest was the great Christopher
Columbus monument built in the early 19th century showing Colum-
bus with a native Indian at his feet.  Not far from the monument
is the reputed home of the Columbus family and probable birth-
place of Christopher Columbus.  Amato and friends attended Mass
in the Church where Columbus was baptized.  Within this church is
a stained glass window depicting Columbus.
     The group took a side trip to Moconesi, the ancestral home
of Giovani Columbo and Domenici Columbo, Christopher's grandfa-
ther and father, respectively.  The area is known for its produc-
tion of slate (about 95% of the slate used in billiard tables). 
Mayor Ferrari greeted the group and hosted a viewing of a poster
series on the life and voyages of Christopher Columbus created by
Senator Taviani, international Columbus expert.  Several sets of
the posters were sent to the Unites States for exhibits.
     Back in Genoa, the group visited the "Olivella", the old
city gates where Columbus' father was gatekeeper.  They were
given a V.I.P. viewing of copies of over sixty written documents
relating to Columbus' life in Italy from his birth to his last
will in the "Sala Columbia", the Columbus archives.  The Phileas
Society sponsored the restoration of a book containing Columbus'
original letters to the bank of Saint Giorgio concerning finan-
cial matters.  At the office of the Mayor of Genoa the group
viewed the original copy of the "Book of Privileges" from the
Spanish Crown and four letters proving Columbus' Genoese heri-
tage.  This book is being reproduced by the Italian government
and copy #1 will be given to the President of the United States
in 1992.
     The highlight of the trip was a banquet with Genoese offi-
cials joining the members of the Phileas Society, where the guest
of honor was Paolo Emilio Taviani, Vice President of the Italian
Senate, third-ranking Italian Government Official and the world's
foremost expert on Christopher Columbus.
     The Phileas Society has conducted its earlier Columbus
Convocations in Florida, Santo Domingo and Spain.
     According to an item which appeared in the "Philadelphia
Inquirer" on November 25, 1988, playwright David Henry Hwang,
whose M. Butterfly won the Tony Award for best Broadway play last
season, hopes to rediscover his musical roots when he teams up
with composer Philip Glass to create "The Voyage", a work commis-
sioned by the Metropolitan Opera.  The production is set to be
staged in October, 1992 to mark the 500th anniversary of
Columbus' discovery of America, Metropolitan Opera official said. 
The production, Hwang's second collaboration with Glass, is to be
directed by David Pountney of the English National Opera.